Monday, June 18, 2018


In India we all have heard about Hindawi Swaraj but we merely have an idea about its importance and origin. This Post is a biography of one the most veteran ruler of india Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle Maharaj.

There is a conflict between scholars related to his birth but majority of them states that he was born on 19th feb 1930 in shivneri fort near Pune (India). His was the second child of Shahji Bhosle and Jijabai.

His father lost a battle against Adil shah (the ruler of Bijapur) and had to accept his supremacy, when shivaji was only 2 years old. Adil shah gave him Tehsildari of Pune but forced Shahji to stay in Bangalore. So his father decided to take his elder son Sambhaji Bhosle with him and left shivaji with his mother.

At the age of 12 he began to observe oppression of Adil Shahi army and decided to fight against it.

His father on the other hand won the trust of Adil shah. He secretely worked for the unity of Marathas.

At the age of 14 when Shivaji Maharaj went to his father, he accidently broke the Adil Shahi rule, due to this Adil shah became furious and decided to punish him but his father and other marathas stood against it.

This bold behaviour of shivaji captured everybody's attention and everyone decided to give him the leadership of their struggle.

This struggle was for the establishment of Hindawi Swaraj, in which there dream was to win over other foreign rulers and to establish their own Hindu rule. The colour of their flag was Bhagwa (Dark orange) which is still a symbol of hinduism.

Adil shah didn't allowed Hindu tehsildars to keep army with them instead he allowed only 100 troops to be recruited for their security.

So shivaji decided to built an secret army first with the help his father. Once his army was established he declared open war against Adil shah by winning various forts which were under Adil shah's control. Among which Torna Fort was most important one.

At the age of 16, he won Torna fort. This is regarded as one of the greatest achievement of Shivaji Maharaj. After this win, Shivaji became hero in western part of india.

Later on he won many battles. A time came when Adil Shah shifted his whole focus towards Shivaji Maharaj and decided to capture Shahji Maharaj to force shivaji to accept defeat but Shivaji plotted a plan to get out of this situation. He offered his friendship to Shah Jahan and in return asked his father's freedom.

Adil Shah on the other hand also sent his troops to Bangakore to defeat Shivaji's brother Sambhaji Bhosle. In this Battle Sambhaji died.

On November 10, 1659, Adil Shah sent Afzal khan to kill Shivaji Maharaj. Afzal khan was very strong fighter, he plotted a conspiracy against Shivaji Maharaj and asked for a meeting with him at Pratapgarh. Shivaji agreed to it but later he found that it was a conspiracy to kill him.

He came to know that Adil Shah is planning to kill him by suffocating him through hug. So Shivaji planned to built a weapon which fits on fingers like ring and had pointed metal nails at it. when Adil Shah hugged him, he killed him with his metal nails.

In this battle forces of Shivaji defeated the forces of the Bijapur Sultanate in the Battle of Pratapgarh.
The Bijapur army lost more than 3,000 soldiers. Also, two sons of Afzal Khan were imprisioned.

On December 28, 1659, Shivaji attacked the Bijapuri forces near Kolhapur and defeated them.

After the officers of Shivaji raided the Mughal territory in March 1657 near Ahmednagar, the conflict between Shivaji and the Mughals started. Followed by raids in Junnar, during which Shivaji gathered 300,000 hun in cash and 200 horses. In response, Aurangzeb sent Nasiri Khan, who successively defeated the forces of Shivaji at Ahmednagar.

The Battle of Chakan, fought between the Mughal Empire and the Maratha Empire, took place in 1660. Aurangzeb ordered Shaista Khan to attack Shivaji with his army of 150,000. At the end, Pune and the Fort of Chakan were captured by the Mughals.
However, later the Marathas were able to re-capture the fort, and Shaista Khan returned to Agra.

On June 11, 1665, the Treaty of Purandar was signed between the Rajput ruler Jai Singh I, the commander of the Mughal Empire, and Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Jai Singh circumvented the Purandar fort and Shivaji had to sign an agreement

He won many forts among which Kondana (Sinhagad), Torana, Murambdev, and Purandar are most important.

He was captured in 1966 by Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb invited Shivaji at Agra but later on captured him. Shivaji somehow managed to escape.

Shivaji later on won almost 50% of India and came to Known as Chhatrapati Maharaj.

Shivaji died on April 5, 1680 due to fever and dysentary. Many mughale believed that he died due to the curse from Jan muhammad of Jalna while some Marathas believed that he was poisoned by Soyarabai, his second wife who wanted her son Rajaram to be the next King.

After his death Sambhaji bhosle became king. He was the son of Saibai, Chhatrapati's first wife. Shivaji Maharaj gave this name to his son in the memory of his brother.

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj is still alive in our thoughts and he is one of the greatest source of inspiration for all of us. In Maharashtra almost each and every Government office have photo of this legend hanging on their wall.

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