Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Saiyid Brothers - The King Makers of Indian History

There were two brothers in Indian History who were known as king makers. There were de facto rulers of delhi sultanate for almost a decade. They throned and dethroned 5 Mughal rulers in a single decade. These two brothers were Abdullah Khan and Hussain Ali Khan also known as Saiyid Brothers.

Iintial Phase of Saiyid Brothers

During Aurangzeb's reign, in 1697, Abdullah khan was Faujdar of Sultanpur. He was later appointed as subedar of Khandes in 1678. Abdullah was also one of the chiefs in last mission of Aurangzeb in 1705.

Hussain Ali Khan,the younger one, had first the charge of Ranthambhore in Ajmer. Then he took the charge of Hindaun Bayna in Agra.

Rise of Saiyid Brothers

After Aurangzeb's death in 1707, Civil war broke out in Mughal Empire, in which 65 years year old Bahadur Shah emerged victorious.

Bahadur Shah died in 1712 and again civil war as well as disintigration of Mughal empire began. With the support of one of the finest noble of that time, Zulfiqar Khan, less abled Jahandar Shah emerged victorious. Still there was always hustle between Zulfiqar khan and Jahandar Shah related to authority.

Saiyid brothers utilised this situation to the fullest and intrigued against Jahandar Shah. Farrukh Siyar, The nephew of Jahandar Shah, with their support, defeated Jahandar Shah in Agra in January 1713.

Farrukh Siyar after becoming emperor made Abdullah Khan his Wazir while he made Hussain Ali Khan his Mir Bakshi. He owed his victory to them.

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Role of Saiyid brothers as King Maker

After holding the two most important positions in the administration, They started to influence the whole working system. Worried with their growing Power, Farrukh Siyar started putting restrictions on them.

Conflict between ruler and Saiyid brothers started and this continued till 1719, when these two brothers finally found a way to tackle this problem.

Saiyid brothers with the support of Balaji Vishwanath Bhat, the Peshwa of Maratha Kingdom, assassinated Farrukh Siyar and replaced Rafi-ud-darajat on the throne in february 1719 but he died of consumption in June 1719.

Then Shah Jahan II was throned but he also died of consumption in september 1719. Then they placed Muhammad Shah on the throne.

All three being mere puppets of Saiyid Brothers and they remained de facto ruler of the empire from 1713 to 1720.

End of Saiyid Brother's dominance

After the assassination of the emperor Farrukh Siyar, courtiers and nobles became frightened and started forming anti-Saiyid brothers group. Many Aurangzeb's trusted noble joined this group because they considered many policies of their policies as Anti-Islamic.

Muhammad Shah, the emperor, who wanted to make himself free from the hands of Saiyid brothers, got support of this group. He also got support of two most powerful Nobles of that time, Nizam-ul-Mulk and Muhammad Amin Khan.

They conspired against them and killed the younger one, Hussain Ali Khan in 1720.

Abdullah Khan tried to fight back but was ultimately defeated at Agra.

This is how the dominance of Saiyid brothers ended but they got their name registered in the history as the King Makers.

This is all for now, for any queries and suggestions feel free to comment.
Thank You.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

The Indian Ruler Who Chose Death Over Conversion - Sambhaji Bhosle Maharaj

There was a Maratha ruler who opt to chose death over conversion. This ruler was Chhtrapati Sambhaji Bhosle Maharaj, the 2nd Maratha ruler. His whole skin was peeled off from the body. The torture he went through is still considered as the most inhuman one ever faced. Read this complete blog to know more about him.
Sambhaji Bhosle Maharaj

Life Before Enthronement

Sambhaji Bhosle was the only child of Saibai, first wife of Chhtarapati Shivaji. He was born on 14th may 1657 in Purandar fort (Pune). His mother died when he was just two, he was raised by his grandmother Jijabai.

Keshav Pandit was employed for Sambhaji Bhosle's education. Sambhaji Bhosle was well educated and was well versed in about 9 languages other than Marathi. He has written some eminent books like Budhbhusnam and Nayikabhed.

In 1665, At just 9 years of age, Sambhaji Bhosle had to live with Raja Jai Singh of Amer as a political hostage as he became Mughal mansabdar due to the treaty of Purandar.

Later, as per the treaty of Purandar, Sambhaji Bhosle with his father Shivaji Maharaj went to Agra to meet Aurangzeb but they were house arrested by Aurangzeb but somehow they managed to escape.

Sambhaji Bhosle Maharaj was married to Yesubai and had one son Shahu and one daughter Bhavani Bai.

He was imprisoned at Panhala fort by his father Shivaji Maharaj in 1678 for alleged irresponsible behavior.

Struggle With Mughals After Coming in Power

Sambhaji Bhosle Maharaj came to throne in 1981 after his father's death. He faced stiff competition from his brother Raja ram for the throne.

After coming in power he waged war against Mughal emperor Aurangzeb and captured many forts under Mughal.

Aurangzeb also realised the threat possesed by him and in response he shifted his court in Aurangabad to fight with him.

Sambhaji Bhosle fought almost 120 battles in his 9 year long reign and emerged victorious in all of them.

Kavi Kalash was chief counselor of Sambhaji Bhosle Maharaj.

Sambhaji Bhosle Maharaj was strictly against conversion and issued a warning that whoever found helping in conversion will be executed with his whole family.

How He Was Captured

After trying so hard Mughals gave up chasing him but conspiracies against Sambhaji bhosle Maharaj continued and when he came to know about conspiracies, he executed all conspirators including his brother in law Ganoji Shirke.

In retaliation, Ganoji Shirke informed one of the Mughal chiefs about a secret road used by Sambhaji Bhosle Maharaj. Mughals used this information and captured him along with Kavi Kalash.

They were brought in front of Aurangzeb in Agra.

Tortures Sambhaji Bhosle Maharaj Went Through

After capturing Sambhaji Bhosle Maharaj and Kavi Kalash, Aurangzeb tied them upside down and circulated them in the whole city and asked the citymen to split on them.

Then he imprisoned them and gave Sambhaji Bhosle Maharaj an offer that if he hands over all the forts and treasury he looted to Aurangzeb along with the name of spies of him in his court in addition to conversion to Islam, he would set him free. To this offer Sambhaji Maharaj simply replied, No!

Then he ordered his soldiers to pluck out their eyes. Then he again asked him to accept Islam to which he asked for board and on board Sambhaji Bhosle Maharaj wrote " I will not accept Islam even if the emperor bribe me with his daughter.

Gradually torture increased. Their tongues were pulled out, hairs were peeled off from the head, fingers were cut down and whole skin was peeled off from the body.

This torture continued for more than 40 days and on each day evening Aurangzeb gave him the same offer, to which his answer was always No.

In the end Aurangzeb said to Sambhaji Maharaj that If I had a son like you I would have won the entire nation and ordered his soldiers to tore Sambhaji Maharaj and Kavi Kalash into many parts with Wagh Nakh (Lion- claws).

Thats how they died , Sambhaji Maharaj is also considered as the Dharamrakshak in the Indian history.

That's all for now, I hope you got to know about Sambhaji Maharaj also known as Dharamrakshak.

For any suggestion or queries, comment down below.
Thank You.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

The Country of Millionaires and Billionaires- Monaco

Yes, you read it right , there is a country in Europe which is known as country of millionaires and billionaires. It is also the second smallest country of the world after Vatican City. The country which I am talking about is Monaco. Read this blog to find more interesting fact like this related to this country.
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Some Details of Monaco

Monaco is a sovereign city state in Europe. It is surrounded by France from 3 sides and Mediterranean sea from one side. Monaco- ville is the capital of the country. French is the official language of the country and it has a population of 37,308 and a growth rate of 2.25%. Roman Catholic is the official religion of Monaco with population share of 90%.

It got status of sovereign state in 1861 after Franco-Monegasque treaty and it became voting member of UN in 1993.

Monaco is the second smallest country of the world with an area of 2.025 square km. It is also the most densely populated sovereign state of the world with density of 18,469 per square km.

It is not formally part of European Union but it takes part in the policy formation. The defence responsibility of the country is given to France.

Why It is Called The Country of Millionaires and Billionaires

According to official data more than 30% of Monaco's population is millionaire. It has excellent gambling facilities, first casino of the country being Monte Carlo.

It does not have income tax along with this, it has low business tax and hence also known as Tax Haven ( Country with very low tax for foreign investors).

Major source of income for the country is Tourism. Per capita income of the country is US $166,726 (GDP Nominal), which makes it first in terms per capita as per GDP Nominal.

Unemployment rate of the country is just 2% in spite of over 47,000 workers from France and Italy commuting to Monaco each day. This country has lowest poverty in the world.

It hosts Monaco Grand Prix Formula 1 race per year. It is one of the original circuits of the Grand Prix.

If you are thinking to move in here, just hold on there's more to go

Most Expensive Country of The World - Monaco

Yes, Monaco is the most expensive country of the world too. For the 4th consecutive year , it has the world's most expensive real estate market at $58,3000 per square meter.

This country has high Social-Insurance tax which is payable by both employers and employees. Employers pay 28% to 40% while employees pay 10%.

It is considered as the recreation center for the rich.

That's all for now, I hope you got some information regarding this country of millionaires and billionaires and for any query regarding this topic kindly comment down below.

Thank you.

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